Composting consists in the conversion of organic waste into useful soil improvers and organic fertilizers. Raw materials used for composting include the following:/p>

  • Animal waste and droppings (cattle, pigs, chickens);
  • Wood and agricultural residues;
  • Slaughterhouse, olive press/mills and dairy waste;
  • Urban and industrial organic waste.

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The establishment of composting plants depends on the availability of raw material, given that the raw material consists of waste produced by existing facilities. Large composting plants can only be established by companies or Local Authorities. Of course, composting can also take the form of small applications, at hotels or restaurants or even households, using special bins that can be installed in outdoor areas.

Advantages - Environmental Benefits

Composting entails numerous economic, environmental and social advantages:

  • It provides a solution for various environmental problems created by the uncontrolled and haphazard disposal of organic waste from existing businesses; Moreover, the application of composting can assist the businesses to comply with the valid waste legislative framework and improve their competitiveness;
  • The organic soil improver produced can be of excellent quality given that its texture and physical composition is similar to soil’s natural texture/composition and thus enhances plant growth; Thanks to these properties, compost can replace the use of synthetic chemical fertilizers and be used for organic crops;
  • The separation of organic waste from municipal waste, for the purpose of composting, reduces the volume of waste ending up at landfill sites and illegal waste dumps; As a consequence, the number of Local Authorities’ collection vehicle runs is reduced, which implies lower pollutant emissions, fuel consumption and thus lowers municipal charges.

Institutional Framework

The national legislative framework does not provide any license procedure of onsite composting e.g. at a restaurant or home. On the other hand, license for large-scale applications is required, for the transportation and composting of materials away from production sites.
Depending on the quantity and the type of waste, the Ministry of the Environment, Energy and Climate Change, the Decentralised Administration and the Region are responsible for issuing establishment and operating licenses for composting plants.